In 2014, linguist and political activist Noam Chomsky warned that the TPP “was designed to advance the neoliberal project of maximizing profit and supremacy and putting the world`s workers in competition with each other to reduce wages, to increase uncertainty.”  Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) argues that trade agreements such as the TPP “have destroyed families who end up working and enriched big business.”  Professor Robert Reich asserts that the TPP is a “Trojan horse in a global race to the bottom.”    “The economic benefits of the agreement may be marginal for Southeast Asia, but there are some interesting trade and customs dynamics to watch for Southeast Asia,” said Nick Marro of the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Economists Peter A. Petri and Michael G. Plummer question whether the TPP will primarily benefit the rich. Their analysis concludes that “the benefits of the TPP appear to be fairly distributed – labour will increase relative to capital, and cost reduction will favour low-income households. Some workers will have to change jobs, but they represent a small fraction of normal employment in a given year and national benefits argue for generous compensation for their accommodation costs. The agreement will also benefit workers in the poorest member countries of the TPP.  Studies by Harvard economist Robert Z. Lawrence have shown that “the percentage gains in labour income generated by the TPP will be slightly greater than the benefits of capital income. Households of all quintiles will benefit from similar percentages, but once differences in spending are taken into account, the percentages of growth for poor and middle-class households will be slightly higher than the benefits to leading households.   In a statement by Ed Gerwin in the Wall Street Journal, it is argued that the TPP agreement benefits small businesses in the United States.
 Both the extension of the concept of copyright and the non-complaint-free provision (i.e., competent authorities can take legal action without the need to file a formal complaint) failed in Japan because they were so controversial.  At the beginning of 2015 “a group of artists, archivists, academics and activists … Japan [asked] its negotiators to oppose the TPP requirements that would require their country and five of the 11 other nations negotiating the secret agreement to extend their copyright rules to respect the already excessive length of U.S. copyright.  However, the final agreement establishes a clause of copyright that corresponds to that obtained under U.S. law – the life of the author plus 70 years. The U.S. International Trade Commission estimates that “the TPP would have positive effects, even if it is only a small percentage of the overall size of the U.S. economy.”  There will be 128,000 additional full-time jobs.  By 2032, U.S.
real annual income would increase by 0.23%, real GDP would increase by $42.7 billion, or 0.15%, employment would increase by 0.07%, U.S. exports would increase by 1% and imports would increase by 1%.  The report added that “the TPP would generally introduce trade-related disciplines that strengthen and harmonize rules, enhance security and reduce business costs for companies operating and investing in the TPP region.”  Vietnam is often considered the main beneficiary of the TPP.    The United States